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Tasseled Hats and Fancy Gowns

What a great day!  I was very touched and honoured to receive a Doctor of Science honoris causa of St George’s Hospital Medical School – an honorary degree which, in case you were beginning to worry, doesn’t give me licence to do proper doctoring, dispense medicines etc.  Phew, said my sister, whom I subjected to much pretend doctoring as a child.  As you can see, dressing up acquired a whole new meaning as I got a very splendid gown plus a Harry Potter style sorting hat complete with stylish tassel.

I dedicated my doctorate to my father.  He was an extraordinary man.  He could charm birds from trees, living what we would today call a ‘colourful life’ which was a scant half step ahead of the law.  He had a tattoo parlour outside the Dockyard Gates in Portsmouth, a disreputable caff with a busy set of women employed (not by him I hasten to add) entertaining naval personnel above it and a huge business in slot machines.  He sent me to a posh girl’s school and paid the fees in coins.  From an early age, I wanted desperately to be a doctor and had five places to read medicine, but my father became ill during my A level year and died of cancer shortly after my exams.  So, he died assuming that his daughter was going to be a doctor. In fact, I narrowly missed the grades I needed but was still determined to go to University (the first in my family) and to do science, which was always my first love.  It’s taken 40 years to become a doctor, but I suspect my father would have been inordinately proud – although would have no doubt yelled something incredibly inappropriate just as I received the scroll. He terrorised my headmistress and once managed to get her to demonstrate a pogo stick in front of a large crowd of incredulous parents by dint of waving a huge wodge of cash at her and saying, ‘This for the swimming pool fund (and it was a vast sum in its day which he’d won on the horses that morning) if you get on this pogo stick’. Embarrassed?  I could have died.

I did also mention to the assembled graduates – congratulations to you all by the way – that I felt that at any moment, my Form 1 maths teacher, the hated Mrs Glass, would appear and demand that I stopped being so silly. Would I just come down from that stage?  I was ashamedly bad at maths and thought that if you were clever, you could do maths and I couldn’t, so I couldn’t be clever.  So, I’ve lived my life – which hasn’t been without success – thinking almost daily that I’m about to be revealed as a complete fraud and found out.  As I’ve got older, I have realised that imposter syndrome is much more widespread, not just confined to women although I think more prevalent amongst them and certainly not simply to those challenged by sums.  Perhaps we all spend our days thinking ‘how did I get away with that’?  It certainly doesn’t diminish that much with age, but I advised the St George’s graduates that they needed to keep a herogram file.  Every time – and there will be many occasions be sure – that someone says, ‘Great job’, stick the details into your secret herogram file on your phone.  Then, when you are feeling really wimpy, just click on the file and there will be an extraordinary number of people telling you how great you are.  They can’t all be wrong.

I ended my address by saying that you must be careful how you use that Dr in front of your name.  I was on a plane recently when the flight attendant came up to the man next to me and said ‘Sir, I see from the passenger list that you’re a doctor, there’s a lady with a problem back there, can you help?’  ‘Only if she’s rusting, I’m a doctor of metallurgy’ said my new best friend.

I felt deeply honoured and thank you to Jenny Higham, the Principal and to my great chum Dr. Deborah Bowman, who introduced me, and indeed to everyone at St George’s Medical School.

 

Fish, Brains and Dancing

Sometimes I have weeks which are memorable on several counts.  Well, here’s a corker. I found myself making a film about Alzheimer’s with some extraordinary scientists, had a day of fishy surprises in Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture, and finally found myself dancing with Darcey –  yes, her Strictly Dameship herself – on stage, in front of a couple of hundred people.

But let’s start with the fish.  The University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture, which is the largest of its kind in the world, hold an annual Ph.D. conference which I found myself hosting on a wet day in April.  There were some very impressive presentations. Did you know that farmed fish, especially when they are hungry, behave like a load of grumpy toddlers? Apparently, they barge about, causing trouble, in particular, biting the fins of other fish which is painful if you are on the receiving end, as well as a big welfare and health issue.  But provide them – and this is a top fish fact – with the equivalent of fish toys (the proper term is environmental enrichment) and there is a significant reduction in fin damage. Who knew?

Another bit of fishy fascination concerned cleaner fish – the fish which feed on other fishes’ parasites. Aquaculturists talk about ‘deploying’ them as if they were a load of tanks in a battle.  Wrasse is a champion fish louse muncher but grow slowly. Thomas Cavrois, a French scientist, explained how manipulating temperature and food during their development can reduce the time taken to get them to their optimum ‘deployment’ size by a quarter.  He also let slip that whereas almost no-one in the UK will eat wrasse, an ugly thick skinned blighter with flesh that has a curious green tint, the French will kill for a wrasse fillet which they think is delicious. I was not surprised. I once met a Frenchman on a beach in Brittany enthusiastically eating a chiton, a rock dwelling mollusk that looks a bit like a scaly squashed woodlouse. Briny tasting toenail is being over generous.

Finally, African catfish.  They are the principal farmed fish in Africa and Isa Suleiman, a Nigerian with a wonderful knack for storytelling, had the entire audience hooked as he explained current hatchery practices in Nigeria.  ‘Shooters’ are preferred as broodstock. These are much bigger than the other fish and local farmers believe them to be genetically superior and pay premium prices for them. Sadly, Isa concluded, having checked out their genetic profile, that they had got big by eating their friends instead of tedious old fish food.  He’s now working to provide better broodstock to make this important industry sustainable. It was a top day and thank you to Giuseppe Paladini, a Scottish Crucibliste, for inviting me.

Goldfish are notorious for having short memories – although this is in fact, a myth.  Memory problems in humans, however, are often the first symptom of something we all fear – Alzheimer’s – and over 10 million people already live with this disease across Europe.  Although there is some evidence that the incidence of Alzheimer’s is falling, its prevalence will increase in line with the increasing number of us who now reach advanced ages. We all want a cure but the understanding of the brain is way behind that of say, cancer.

This year’s Lundbeck Brain Prize has been awarded to four scientists who have each contributed enormously to the understanding of the basic science underlying Alzheimer’s.  It’s a disease of plaques and tangles in the brain. I was privileged to interview the winners for a film. John Hardy, the geneticist, who advanced the idea that the build-up of amyloid plaques was a key process, Michel Goedart whose work focuses on the tau tangles found inside brain cells, Christian Haas who managed to devise a model for testing theories and Bart de Strooper, who heads the UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL and whose work on the enzymes that chop up amyloid has been so important.  Back in the 80s, only a few hundred scientists were interested in Alzheimer’s, including these four. Now it is tens of thousands. I’m looking forward to interviewing them all again in Copenhagen in May. And if you are wondering why, with so much work, we still haven’t got a way to prevent or treat this terrible disease effectively, I suspect we have a number – but we just need to give them far earlier in the disease process which may begin 20 years before any symptoms appear.

Finally dancing with Darcey.  I am including the least incriminating of the pictures, ie the one where I look slightly less like a twitching sack of potatoes.  The Dame of Dance and Strictly Belle had come to the Aesop Showcase and Conference at the Guildhall School’s magnificent Milton Court venue.  Aesop, which develops evidence-based arts interventions for health, was founded by my husband Tim Joss. It was an inspiring occasion and I love hosting it although obviously, I had to sleep with my husband to get the gig.  You can read more about it here.  Darcey has developed a dance programme called DDMix for schools and showcased it at the event.  She talked about it with huge passion and then decided to demonstrate some of the moves. Unfortunately, I happened to be the only person with her on the stage at the time and got roped in.  Dear reader, I failed for how anyone can look elegant beside the ever elegant Darcey. I did confess to her that I had been thrown out of my ballet class at the age of 4 for being a danger to the rest of the class (an unfortunate incident with a chair) and offered to show her a few of my steps but luckily for the audience, she declined the femtosecond experience which would have ensued.  Roll on the next season of Strictly.

January Garden Journal

I’m surrounded by seed and plant catalogues because this is the time of year when I reflect on what worked and what didn’t in the garden and decide what to grow next year.  I have to start by confessing that I don’t learn.  In fact, I am remarkably similar to the pheasant I spotted taking seed from the feeder today.  Every time he pecked it, it swung back and hit him.  But he still staggered forward for another peck, undeterred.  Why don’t I learn for instance that if you plant 20 courgette plants, you will get 20 tons of courgettes?  And I don’t mean those cute little ones either.  The cuties hide under leaves and morph overnight into monster marrows that are no good to anyone except as assault weapons.  How many did I plant this year? Oh yes, dear reader, 20.  And boy did they do well.  Can I report my faves?  Bianca di Trieste (a little pale one), Romanesco (striped and ribbed) and Soleil (yellow).  You can get all of them as seeds from Sarah Raven.  I also like Nero di Milano which is a very deep and shiny dark green.

Let’s plunge into the disasters;  squashes. I decided to try planting them in straw bales.  You condition the bales for two weeks beforehand, with a high nitrogen fertiliser (lawn greener will do it or alternatively just pee on them) and lots of water. Provided you provide gallons of water, the decomposing (and quickly hot) interior of the bales will apparently give you super-sized pumpkins.  Or not.  It wasn’t just that the novelty of aiming at bales wore off for my husband, but the whole episode coincided with some really hot weather.  They withered and died.  Never mind, onwards and upwards.  Squashes I like are Turk’s Turban, beautiful things that look like a cottage loaf, orange on the bottom with a striped top, Red Kuri (the onion squash) which is, duh, red and not too huge.  It’s very nutty in taste.  This year I grew them up a wigwam along with a yellow and orange flowered climber called Spanish Flag (Mina lobata) which looked very fancy. I also grow butternut squashes (a reliable and easy variety called Hunter).  This year I’m going to grow Burgess Vine Buttercups.  These are relatively small pumpkins which are good eaters and store well.  Finally, triumph over adversity, I’m going to plant Muscat de Provence.  This is a fabulous thing which is the classic Cinderella pumpkin although it does apparently roam about all over the place with enthusiastic abandon.  In my dreams.

The other place I get veg seed is The Real Seed Catalogue.  They have a fantastic selection and a great hit for me this year were an old-fashioned pea variety from them called Champion of England.  More than 6’ tall (grow them up a wigwam of twigs), they produce masses of lovely peas.  Another big hit were Greek Gigantes, these are the beans that you eat in tomato sauce when you are on holiday in Greece.  Very easy to grow.  In fact, all my beans did really well this year.  We ate beans for weeks along with masses of curly kale (Redbor).  We are still eating leeks, carrots, spinach, and chard from the garden.  Did I mention Bright Lights?  This is a chard with a rainbow of different coloured stems.  They are bulletproof, you could stick a few seeds in a largish pot and providing you keep cutting them, you’ll get masses of lovely leaves – and they look fabulous.  Beetroot also did well.  I grew a fancy type this year called Chioggia.  When you cut it you get a white slice with pink rings. They provide a big oo-ah factor in salads.  And really easy to grow. If you ever go to Venice, head south across the lagoon to Chioggia.  It is the veg capital of Italy and if you look at the seed catalogues, you will frequently see the term ‘Chioggia’, as in Viola di Chioggia, the purple-tinged and delicious small globe artichoke.  Chioggia is also a fishing port, with a famous fish market so a double reason to visit the market, inspect the veg and have a memorable fish dinner too.

I was unexpectedly (as in normally things eat them before I get to them) successful with Calabrese (broccoli) and cauliflower.  Bursting with pride that I can even grow a thing that looks like what you’d buy in Sainsbury’s, I have now ordered some Brussel Sprout plants from Marshalls (a company that specialise in brassicas and onions).  I can grow brassicas from seed, but life’s too short to cosset them and their tricksy ways.

It’s January,  it’s freezing outside but I’m just about to sow seed of aubergines, peppers, and chilli in the propagator.  I’m chitting my potatoes (garden speak for sticking them in egg boxes on the windowsill to sprout) and also sowing some sweet peas and broad beans (a variety called Aquadulce).  The days are getting longer already and Spring is a glint in the eye.

Meanwhile, I leave you with a picture of one of my huge collection of Salvias.  This one is Salvia leucantha – a gorgeous thing with fluffy, outrageously purple flowers that kept on going well into November before the frost threatened and I had to move them into the greenhouse. The bright pink flower in the same pot is a species pelargonium from South Africa, that is as tough as boots called Pelargonium sidoides.  Enjoy the catalogues.

September: my manic month

Milan was the first stop in a manic month of travel.  I was hosting Live@ERS, a daily TV feed at the European Respiratory Society international congress.

Our Live@ERS set

This is a huge meeting attended by some 22,000 respiratory professionals. The thing I love about attending big medical congresses is the vibe you pick up about what’s hot in the science.  It’s partly seeing the queues outside particular sessions but it’s also hearing the chatter over the coffee.  The lung microbiome was definitely hot.  Not that long ago, medical students were taught that the inner reaches of the lung were sterile.  We now know that they team with bacteria, which strongly influence the onset of disease.  For instance, studies of the microbiome in children with and without lower respiratory infection show that infection is the outcome of an ongoing turf war in the lung.  Resident non-harmful bacteria normally keep potentially harmful bugs in check, but some children either don’t have those peacekeepers or their efforts are overwhelmed.  There was a host of other presentations showing the role of the microbiome in COPD (chronic progressive lung diseases), cystic fibrosis, asthma and many others.  All of these illustrated the complex interplay between your environment, your bugs and you.  What does this work mean?  I think in the future you will see less emphasis on antibiotics and more on manipulating the lung environment to favour ‘good’ bacteria.  I think you will see testing of the microbiome in the initial workup as the microbiome of the lung may be a way of phenotyping (essentially a way to sort people with the same symptoms into different treatment baskets) which in itself may mean more effective treatment. Before you ask, live ‘good’ bugs pumped into your lung?  Unlikely I think.

 

The other thing that was hot was a big study from China on early-stage COPD.  If you’re a smoker, listen up. Normally, treatment is offered to those with symptoms, which means that their disease is already well on the march.  Those in the earliest stages, when lung function is about 80% of what it should be, typically don’t think there is anything wrong with them beyond a bit of a cough – “which is normal right if you smoke?” Yet their lung function is already declining.  There is no screening for early-stage COPD because there’s no evidence that treating it at this stage makes any difference.  Now we have the first indications that this might not be the case. Giving a broncho dilating drug called tiotropium reduced the expected annual decline in lung function in the treatment group compared to placebo. It’s a highly significant finding in China which is facing a vast problem caused not just by smoking but also by pollution and biomass burning.  It’s a study that potentially also opens the way to mass screening, say a lung function test for everyone, starting with smokers.  Some might say why not just ban smoking – well, both and of course –  but don’t forget that there are a significant number of people who get COPD despite being never smokers.

Finally, an observation from me about the newly published Mirror study, which compared patient’s and doctor’s views of their relationship Patients admitted fibbing, being far less than honest than even their docs had imagined.  Doctors also vastly underestimated the impact of severe lung disease on their patient’s daily lives and were much more concerned by their lung measurements than with what patients could or couldn’t do.  It’s a bit like us and the US, isn’t it.  Divided by a common language.  My advice to patients is to tell your doctors what’s important to you. And my advice to doctors is to ask ..and take what you’re told with a pinch of salt or three.

Future Energy Forum, Astana

I’ve spent some time last month in Kazakhstan hosting two conferences in the Future Energy Forum series, one on the role of cities and the other on the role of policy.  A standout speaker was Professor Mohan Munasinghe, joint winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace with Al Gore.  The conferences took place in the Kazakh capital, Astana which is hosting the World Energy Expo. Of course, I enjoyed the British Pavilion, designed by superstar architect British architect Asif Khan but the Kazakh pavilion (which is in the globe) was incredibly impressive.  You walked from the top down and around different levels, each representing separate renewable energies: wind, solar, biomass, hydro and space.  What struck me was the number of kids there, completely starry eyed, mouths open, gulping all this future down.  I suspect they will remember it all their lives and that it will prompt them to do two things; the first to dream of becoming an astronaut (the biggest queues were on the space level) and the second, cement in their minds that renewables are their future.

For older Kazakhs this is difficult to imagine – after all, their whole economy is based on the country’s production of abundant fossils fuels and their power is, by our standards, astonishingly cheap. Climate change doesn’t have the traction with them that it does elsewhere for they already live in the harshest of climates  – it can reach -60c in winter and +40c in summer.  So how do you persuade?  At a political level, one of the most persuasive arguments is economic. As other countries leave fossil fuels behind, the price will fall and the Kazakhs will begin to see their economy and influence in central Asia diminish. This is driving government.  As for ordinary Kazakhs, starting where they are and focusing on reducing energy use by increasing energy efficiency is the first step – that and inspiring a whole new generation with Expo.  It’s a strategy that I think will work – as it must.

I’m listening here to the Chief Engineer of the Kazakh state railway. A brief welcome was supposed to be his brief but bless him, the opportunity to tell a captive audience about the engines of his trains was an opportunity too irresistible to pass up. Engineers. They’re enthusiasts in every language.

The thing that most impressed me whilst I was in the country was its celebration of women warriors.  This is a Muslim country but Kazakh women enjoy high status and traditionally fought alongside men, typically as lethal horseback archers.  We celebrate Jane Austen, a writer of sharp social observation who dueled with her pen, on our bank notes.  The Kazakhs celebrate Queen Tomyris who personally killed Cyrus the Great of Persia in a 5th Century battle on their notes.  Gosh.

August: A month of rest for most, but not me!

We are only 10 days into the month of August and so far I have been very busy. Here are three completely contrasting things I have been doing so far:

Here’s a commentary from me, just published in Nature .

Everyone is getting in a froth about gene edited embryos and talking about the need for ‘conversations’.  I am making the point that the really urgent conversations that need to be had are about genomics which is now entering mainstream NHS care, rather than about a technology which is many years ahead and likely to be for the very few.  I say this particularly in the context of the UK Chief Medical Officer’s report ‘Genome Generation’ which calls for a social contract between patients and the NHS, especially about the use of data.

Here’s a piece that I wrote for the Mail on Sunday about the Princess of Wales and the furore over a documentary revealing tapes recorded by her voice coach. 

Astonishingly, it is 20 years since the death of the Princess of Wales.  I worked with Diana for 12 years while she was Patron of Birthright, the mother and baby research charity that was then part of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.  I was its National Organiser, running the research programme but also all its fundraising events

I was a rookie charity organiser aged 26 and Diana was a rookie princess when we first met in 1982 at an event, ‘The Brilliant and Beautiful Evening of Fashion’ at London’s Guildhall.  We got on famously.  I called her ‘Miss’ and she mocked me for my short skirts and my ever constant clipboard.  I watched her grow from anxious ingenue to confident world superstar and she was a very important part of my life for over a decade. After her death, I became a Trustee of the Diana Memorial Fund.   Although it is now two decades ago, the week between her death and her funeral was one of the most extraordinary in British history and remains sharp in my memory.

And here’s a pic of the World Energy Expo.  I recently visited Astana in Kazakhstan for the World Energy Expo where I facilitated two conferences for the Future Energy Forum.

Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan and the Kazakh Expo pavilion (which was inside a huge ball) was outstanding, incredibly well presented and thought out.  After going up in a lift to the top, you made your way down through different levels, with each one representing a different sort of renewable energy – solar, wind, biomass, space and so on.  It was fascinating.  I watched a lot of very excited Kazakh children in the space section and wondered if a decade or so hence, they will be the astronauts and engineers of the future, having been inspired by their visit to Expo as children. In the UK I am sure that we will have a Tim Peake generation of engineers in the same way that there is a generation (who constantly tell me this) that were inspired to take up engineering and science by watching Tomorrow’s World.

I also visited the Great Britain pavilion which has a fascinating installation of a yurt made of perspex struts which lit up when you touched them, completely surrounded by a landscape panorama.  As the yurt lights came on, so the representation of light in the corresponding piece of the panorama changed, going from day to night or from sunny to cloudy. Sounds weird on paper but it was mesmerising to watch.

I was in Astana to facilitate two conferences of the 12 conference series, ‘Future Energy Forum’.  Kazakhstan has vast reserves of oil and gas and a booming economy based on oil but seem committed to a future in which renewables become more and more important.  They are especially interested in energy efficiency, as well they might be with a temperature range of over 80 degrees, running from +40 in the summer to -40 in the winter (Oh, and add a windchill factor of another 20 degrees).  I really enjoyed talking to young Kazakhs in particular at the conferences.

For Women in Science 2016

Just before Easter, I found myself in Paris making a series of daily films for CNN for the L’Oreal UNESCO For Women in Science programme, now its 18th year.

Here’s a link to the second one

http://discov-her.com/en/article/l-oreal-unesco-for-women-in-science-daily-episode-2-thuesay-march-22nd

As you will see, I managed to get a sneak peek inside the French Academy of Sciences.  I felt like a bit of an outsider and not just because I was a Brit, or as the French refer to us, un rosbif.  The place is awash with statues of men, with not a single women in sight.

Pictures of the Laureates are everywhere in Paris.  Mrs Parry in homage here
Pictures of the Laureates are everywhere in Paris. Mrs Parry in homage here

It was an enormous privilege meeting the 2016 Laureates.  They included Quarraisha Abdool Karim, a South African epidemiologist who was absolutely determined to find an HIV prevention method that could be used by women.  Vaginal microbicides were an obvious answer but decades of research by many teams across the world delivered nothing but disappointment.   Abdool Karim kept going, finally developing one containing the antiretroviral tenofovir which, although not yet perfect is a great deal better than nothing.   Another Laureate was Chinese professor, Hualen Chen who protects us all from deadly flu pandemics through her surveillance and through the development of novel vaccines.  And there were the CRISPR queens, Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna – CRISPR-cas9 is the gene editing technology that has taken the scientific world by storm. But the Laureate who most impressed me personally was Argentinian, Professor Andrea Gamarnik, who works on the structure of viruses, particularly the flaviviruses which include dengue and also of course, zika.  South America is experiencing very serious outbreaks of dengue at present. It wasn’t just her fascinating research, it was her passion for what she did and her knockout speech of acceptance.   I also fell in love with her 80 year old dad, an activist for social justice throughout his life who was experiencing the proudest moment of his life.

The Abel Prize; the last interview with John Nash

When my friends at the Norwegian Academy of Science asked me to interview the winners of the 2015 Abel Prize, I said yes, of course.  They are very, very nice people and more than that, I love Norway. What’s not to like?  The problem for me was that the Abel is one of the world’s great math prizes and I am shamingly bad at math.

The winners were Louis Nirenberg of the Courant Institute in New York over 90 but still brim full of vigour and great charm and John Nash, 86 whose life is more familiar perhaps to us than his math because of ‘A beautiful Mind’ in which he was played by Russell Crowe.  It documented his battle with schizophrenia.  I prepared more for these interviews than perhaps any other in my life.  Did by the end, I understand partial differential equations.  Dear reader, it was the North Face of the Eiger and I failed to make it to base camp.  All I can tell you is that PDEs have had an extraordinary impact in the world, making it possible to model the unpredictable.  And remember Nash also gave us the Nash Equilibrium, kickstarting Game Theory and once again, having an extraordinary impact on everything from organ donor allocation to broadband auctions.

During the interview, Nash’s voice was faint, making it hard to follow what he said.  He was very frail, with a stooping, shuffling walk – a great contrast to his wife Alicia who although only a couple of years younger seemed much more robust.  Nash was very interesting about his illness.  I asked whether there was a problem that he would have tackled had he not been so ill.  He replied something to the effect that his mind went on strike but that he was now back in control adding that being in good health does not guarantee that you can discover, let alone think through a problem – which of course is right.

There was a wonderful dinner for Nirenberg and Nash at the Akershus Castle in Oslo, in the presence of the King of Norway.  I went there with Cedric Villani, the French mathematician, media personality and spider lover (he always dresses immaculately and wears big spider brooches).

I came back to London briefly and then left for Seville for a cardiology congress. At the very moment that I was telling a group of cardiologists about my encounter with Nash, someone said they had just received a news alert on their phone.  Both Nash and his wife were dead, killed in a car crash on the New Jersey Turnpike.  It was deeply shocking.

The world contains all sorts of people.  Nash was challenging but he also had extraordinary insight, making leaps of intuition that almost no-one else could. He was genuinely that very rare thing.  A genius

 

 

 

Tulips. I love ’em

I love tulips.  I can enthuse about almost any sort, except those funny ones with fringed petals.  Some people treat tulips like annuals, digging them all up once they have flowered which gives you the luxury and fun of choosing a whole new colour scheme next year.  Fine plan but it comes expensive, not to mention time consuming.  So I’ve been looking for tulips that you can leave year to year.

Species tulips in general are the gem like tiddlers, hailing from places like bare mountain slopes in Turkey.  The hotter they bake during the summer, the better they perform.  They hate to be wet so plant them somewhere free draining in full sun or plant them in pots, one sort to a pot and they’ll multiply with time and give you a great display every year.  Sudden disappearances are almost always down to mice who love tulips more than life itself.

So what about the fancy tulips?  A reliable friend from year to year is the orange ‘Ballerina’ which is unusual for a tulip in that it is scented.  I plant it with red kingsblood. In this picture, the red tulips are flowering for their third and fourth season.  This won’t be the case for all tulips and some, like parrot tulips never seem to come again although I have tried.   I have just been to the Chelsea Flower Show and the Bloms stand was magnificent, with tulips of great opulence and beauty.   I order loads and then usually  forget what I have ordered but whilst  I still remember it was several different shades of apricot and orange parrot tulips

For pots, I try different tulips each year.  This candy stripe one is Carnaval de Nice.  It looks like the sort of tulips you see in Dutch still life pictures

I’ve tried many different bulb suppliers.  My favourite for tulips is De Jaeger, followed by Bloms.  For more specialist bulbs, I use Avon Bulbs which have some beautiful species tulips.  Try Battalini Bright Gem.

 

Girls, girls, girls

Iris 15 (2)

Girls, girls, girls

How gorgeous are these girls? All are dwarf iris and all named after girls which seems appropriate as we come up to International Women’s Day. Katharine Hodgkin, the unmistakeable pale blue and yellow, Lady Beatrix Stanley (that mass of mid blue) and Pauline, elegant in deep purple. The great plantsman, E B Anderson crossed two rare irises in the 1960s and named the stunning result after his chum Eliot Hodgkin’s wife. Katharine. The colours are so elegant, the patterns a joy – how wonderful to have something quite so beautiful forever bear your name.

I use three suppliers of bulbs – these come from Avon Bulbs http://www.avonbulbs.co.uk/. This is about their third or fourth outing. When the flowers die away, I feed them all with a liquid feed.

I am also feeding my Fritillaries now, even though the shoots are still tiny. This is because the fritillary bulbs are even now bulking up for the future and need some extra help. They smell really strongly of foxes but unfortunately this does not deter lily beetles who love them almost as much as lilies themselves.

Now sowing tomatoes.  Trying more bush tomatoes.  This is really hope over experience because I know my cold Oxfordshire garden isn’t really tomato heaven.  But that’s the deliciousness of gardening.